EMT Test 3 Ch. 9-10

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Which of the following statements regarding normal gas exchange is correct?

Oxygen and carbon dioxide diffuse across the alveolar walls and capillaries.

Which of the following is not found in the upper airway?

Bronchus

The leaf shaped structure located superior to the larynx is called the:

Epiglottis

The ——- cartilage is is a firm ring that forms the inferior part of the larynx

Cricoid

Structures of the lower airway include all if the following, except the:

Epiglottis

The actual exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide occurs in the:

Alveolar sacs

Which of the following structures is contained within the mediastinum?

Esophagus

The physical act of moving air into and out of the lungs is called:

Ventilation

Inhalation occurs when the:

Diaphragm and intercostal uncles contract and cause a decrease in intrathoracic pressure

The diaphragm functions as an involuntary muscle when a person:

Sleeps

The partial pressure of oxygen in the alveoli is _______ mmhg while the partial pressure of carbon dioxide in the alveoli is _______ mmhg

104, 40

Tidal volume is defined as the amount of air that:

Moves into and out of the lungs in a single breath.

What’s the minute volume of a pt with a tidal volume of 500ml, a dead space volume of 150ml and a respiratory rate if 16 breaths/min?

5600ml

Which of the following factors will cause a decreased minute volume in an adult?

Shallow breathing.

In contrast to inhalation, exhalation:

Is a passive process caused by increased intrathoracic pressure.

Hypoxia is most accurately defined as:

Inadequate oxygen to the tissues and cells.

The hypoxic drive— the primary stimulus to breathe for pt`s with certain chronic respiratory diseases—- is influenced by:

Low blood oxygen levels.

Which of the following is a late sign of hypoxia?

Cyanosis

Which of the following statements regarding oxygenation and ventilation is correct?

In mines or confined places, where oxygen levels are low, ventilation may continue despite inadequate oxygenation.

Each cell of the body combines nutrients and oxygen and produces energy and waste product through a process called?

Metabolism

The process of exchanging oxygen and carbon dioxide between the alveoli and the blood of the capillaries is called?

External respiration

Gas exchange in the lungs is facilitated by:

Adequate amounts of surfactant.

In the presence of oxygen, the mitochondria of the cells convert glucose into energy through a process called:

Aerobic respiration.

Without adequate oxygen, the body’s cells:

Incompletely convert glucose into energy, and lactic acid accumulates in the blood.

The primary waste product of aerobic metabolism is:

Carbon dioxide.

Central chemoreceptors located in the medulla provide feedback to increase the rate and depth of breathing when they sense:

Slight elevations in carbon dioxide or a decrease in the ph of the cerebrospinal fluid.

A ventilation/perfusion (V/Q ratio) mismatch occurs when:

A disruption in blood flow inhibits the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the lungs, even though the alveoli are filled with fresh oxygen.

If ventilation is impaired, carbon dioxide levels in the bloodstream will increase. This condition is called?

Hypercarbia

Intrapulmonary shunting occurs when?

Blood coming from the right side of the heart bypasses nonfunctional alveoli and returns to the left side of the heart in an unoxygenated states.

An adult at rest should have a respiratory rate that ranges between:

12-20 breaths per minute.

Which of the following pt`s is breathing adequately:

A conscious male with respiration a of 19 breaths/min and pink skin.

Which of the following statements regarding breathing adequacy is correct?

Pt’s breathing shallowly may require assisted ventilation despite a normal respiratory rate.

Which of the following wouldn’t it cause a decrease in tidal volume?

Deep respirations

Irregular respirations characterized by an increasing rate and depth of breathing followed by periods of apnea are called:

Cheyne stokes respirations

An unconscious pt found in a prone position must be placed in a supine position in case they:

Require cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR)

You are dispatched to a residence where a middle aged man was found unconscious in his front yard. There are no witnesses that can tell you what happened. You find him in a prone position; his eyes are closed and he is not moving. Your first action should be to:

Log roll him as a unit to a supine position.

What is the most common cause of airway obstruction in an unconscious pt?

The tongue.

In which if hate following ptKs would a head tilt chin lift maneuver be the most appropriate method of opening the airway?

A 37 year old female found unconscious in her bed.

He jaw thrust maneuver is used to open the airway of pt`s with suspected:

Cervical spine injures

Which of the following pt`s would most likely require insertion of an oropharyngeal airway?

40 year old unconscious pt with slow, shallow respirations.

A 19 year old female is found unconscious by her roommate. Your primary assessment reveals that her breathing is inadequate. As you insert an oropharyngeal airway, she begins to gag violently. You should?

Remove the airway and be prepared to suction her oropharynx

To select the proper size oropharyngeal airway you should?

Corner of the mouth to the earlobe.

The nasopharyngeal airway is most beneficial because it:

Can maintain a patent airway in a semiconscious pt with a gag reflex.

The most serious complication associated with using a nasopharyngeal airway in a pt with trauma to the head or face is:

Penetrating the cranium.

A nasopharyngeal airway is inserted:

With the bevel facing the septum if inserted into the right nare

A 71 year old male is semiconscious following a sudden Devore headache. There is vomitus on his face and his respirations are slow and shallow. The emt must immediately:

Perform an oropharyngeal suctioning.

When testing a mechanical suctioning unit, you should turn on the device, clamp the tubing, and ensure that is generates a vacuum pressure of more than:

300 mmhg

The most significant complication with oropharyngeal suctioning is:

Hypoxia due to prolonged suction attempts.

Proper technique for suctioning the oropharynx of an adult pt includes:

Suctioning while withdrawing the catheter from the oropharynx.

You have inserted an oral airway and are ventilating an Apneic woman with a bag mask device. She suddenly begins regurgitating large amounts of vomit. You should:

Roll her onto her side and remove the oral airway.

A 23 year old male experienced severe head trauma after his motorcycle collided with an oncoming truck. He is unconscious,has rapid and shallow breathing, and has copious bloody secretions in his mouth. How should you manage his airway?

Alternate 15 seconds of oral suctioning with 2 minutes of assisted ventilation.

Which of the following pt`s should you place in the recovery position?

A 31 year old semiconscious male with low blood sugar and adequate breathing.

Which of the following organs or tissues can survive the longest without oxygen?

Muscles.

The purpose of the pin indexing system that has been established for compressed gas cylinders is to:

Ensure that the correct regulator is used for the cylinder.

The pressure of gas in a full cylinder of oxygen is approximately —— pounds per square inch (PSI)

2,000

Which of the following oxygen flow meters is not affected by gravity and can be used in any position when attached to an oxygen cylinder?

Bourdon-gauge flow meter

An oxygen cylinder should be taken out of service and refilled when the pressure inside it is less than:

500 psi

Which of the following statements regarding oxygen is correct?

Oxygen supports the combustion process and may cause a fire.

A pt who is suspected of being hypoxic and is breathing adequately should be given supplemental oxygen with a:

Nonrebreathing mask.

With a good mask to face seal and an oxygen flow rate of 15L/min, the nonrebreathing mask is capable of delivering up to——- % inspired oxygen:

90

Prior to applying a nonrebreathing mask on a pt, you must ensure that the:

Reservoir bag is fully inflated.

At a flow rate of 6 L/min, a nasal cannula can deliver an approximateoxygenconcntratoin of up to:

44%

The nasal cannula is most appropriately used in the prehospital setting:

When the pt cannot tolerate a nonrebreathing mask.

The main advantage of the Venturi mask is:

The use of its fine adjustment capabilities in the long term management of physiologically stable pt`s.

A 51 year old female presents with sudden onset of difficulty breathing. She is conscious and alert and able to speak in full sentences. Her respirations are 22 breaths per min and regular. You should:

Administer 100% oxygen via a nonrebreathing mask.

What occurs when a pt is breathing very rapidly and shallowly?

Air moves primarily in the anatomic dead space and does not participate in pulmonary gas exchange.

As the single EMT managing an Apneic pt`s airway, the preferred initial method of providing ventilations is the:

Mouth to mask technique with one way valve.

You and your partner are treating a 66 year old man who experienced a sudden onset of respiratory distress. He is conscious but unable to follow simple verbal commands. Further assessment reveals that his breathing is severely labored and his oxygen saturation is 80%. You should:

Assist his ventilations with a bag valve mask.

Which of the following statements regarding positive pressure ventilation is correct?

With positive pressure ventilation, more volume is required to have the same effects as normal breathing.

How does positive pressure ventilation affect cardiac output?

It increases the intrathoracic pressure, which decreases venous return to the heart and causes a decrease in cardiac output.

You are ventilating a 40 year old uninsured man who is Apneic but has a pulse. When your partner reassesses his blood pressure, he notes that it has decreased significantly from previous readings. You elevate the pt`s legs but this has no effect. You should:

Reevaluate the rate and volume of your ventilations.

You are performing mouth to mask ventilations with oxygen connected and set at a flow rate of 15L/ min. What percentage of oxygen is your pt receiving?

55%

You and your partner are caring for a critically injured pt. your partner is controlling severe bleeding from the pt`s lower extremities as you attempt ventilations with a bag mask device. After repositioning the mask several times, you are unable to effectively ventilate the pt . You should:

Begin ventilations using the mouth to mask technique.

Which of the following statements regarding the one person bag mask device technique is correct?

Adequate tidal volume is often difficult to achieve when one emt is operating the bag mask device.

Despite your attempts to coach a conscious young females respirations, she continues to hyperventilate with a marked reduction in tidal volume. You should:

Explain to her that you will assist her ventilations.

For life to be maintained a balance of oxygen and carbon dioxide is needed. The condition when oxygen levels are low is called?

Hypoxia

The normal stimulus to breath is stimulated by the chemoreceptors that measure the concentration of what two gases?

High carbon dioxide and low oxygen.

The process of air moving in and out of the chest is called?

Ventilation.

Which of the following pt`s does not require the administration of supplemental oxygen?

A 24 year old woman who is breathing at a rate of 28 times per minute after being in an argument with her husband.

Why is inhalation described as an active process?

It requires chest muscles to contract and use energy to move, creating a negative pressure.

Which of the following describes why fast respiration may decrease minute volume?

The lungs may not have the time to fill and exchange gas.

To calculate the minute volume, you need to multiply what two measurements?

Tidal volume and respiratory rate.

Which of the following is the best device to deliver high concentration oxygen to a breathing pt?

Nonrebreather mask.

Your 68 year old pt is suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; this condition can cause gas exchange interruption by what process?

It limits the alveoli capability to exchange oxygen and carbon dioxide because the alveoli itself is not working.

A 16 year old pt presents with labored breathing and increased respiratory rate, increased heart rate, and leaning over with his hands on his knees. His skin is pink and his pulse oximetry is 96. This pt is suffering form respiratory:

Distress.

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