EMT Chapter 7- Life Span Development

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Age-related changes in the renal system result in:
Select one:
A. the formation of large amounts of urine secondary to an increase in kidney mass of up to 20%.
B. a decreased ability to clear wastes from the body and a decreased ability to conserve fluids when needed.
C. a significant increase in filtration, which causes the excretion of large amounts of water from the body.
D. dilation of the blood vessels that supply the nephrons, which allows the kidneys to maintain their function.

B. a decreased ability to clear wastes from the body and a decreased ability to conserve fluids when needed.

At what age does separation anxiety typically peak in infants and small children?
Select one:
A. 10 to 18 months
B. 24 to 36 months
C. 6 to 8 months
D. 18 to 24 months

A. 10 to 18 months

In late adults, the amount of air left in the lungs after expiration of the maximum amount of air:
Select one:
A. decreases, resulting in widespread collapsing of the alveoli and impaired diffusion of gases.
B. remains unchanged because the lungs have become accustomed to years of breathing pollution.
C. decreases, which increases diffusion in the lungs and causes an accumulation of carbon dioxide.
D. increases, which hampers diffusion of gases because of the stagnant air that remains in the alveoli.

D. increases, which hampers diffusion of gases because of the stagnant air that remains in the alveoli.

The anterior fontanelle fuses together between the ages of:
Select one:
A. 9 and 18 months.
B. 6 and 8 months.
C. 7 and 14 months.
D. 3 and 4 months.

A. 9 and 18 months.

The decline in cardiac function that commonly occurs in late adulthood is MOST often related to:
Select one:
A. medication use.
B. hypotension.
C. kidney failure.
D. atherosclerosis.

D. atherosclerosis.

Which of the following are noticeable characteristics of a 9-month-old infant?
Select one:
A. Places objects in the mouth, pulls himself or herself up
B. Walks without help, becomes frustrated with restrictions
C. Responds to his or her name, crawls around efficiently
D. Knows his or her name, can walk without any assistance

A. Places objects in the mouth, pulls himself or herself up

A 16-year-old female complains of vaginal bleeding and abdominal cramping that began several hours ago. During your assessment interview, you should:
Select one:
A. inquire about the possibility of pregnancy in private, if possible.
B. obtain the majority of your information from one of her parents.
C. recall that patients in this age group prefer not to be treated as adults.
D. avoid asking questions that she will feel uncomfortable answering.

A. inquire about the possibility of pregnancy in private, if possible.

An infant’s blood pressure typically increases with age because:
Select one:
A. the infant’s total blood volume decreases with age.
B. his or her normal heart rate usually increases with age.
C. blood pressure directly corresponds to body weight.
D. as the infant gets older, his or her blood vessels dilate.

C. blood pressure directly corresponds to body weight.

The respiratory rate of 30 breaths per minute in an infant is ___________.
Select one:
A. too shallow
B. too slow
C. normal
D. too fast

C. normal

The risk of bleeding in the skull, which increases with age, is MOST directly related to:
Select one:
A. meningeal deterioration.
B. shrinkage of the brain.
C. blood vessel dilation.
D. a decrease in neurons.

B. shrinkage of the brain.

When providing bag-mask ventilations to an infant, what is most important to remember?
A. Blood pressure typically increases with age.
B. An infant’s lungs are fragile.
C. An infant grows at a rate of about 30 g per day.
D. An infant has a proportionately larger tongue than an adult.

B. An infant’s lungs are fragile.

You see an infant capable of reaching out to people and drooling. She is most likely:
A. 2 months of age.
B. 3 months of age.
C. 4 months of age.
D. 5 months of age.

C. 4 months of age.

An infant who is repeatedly rejected experiences what type of attachment?
A. Secure attachment
B. Anxious-avoidant attachment
C. Trust and mistrust
D. Rejection attachment

B. Anxious-avoidant attachment

Why do colds develop so easily in toddlers and preschoolers?
A. They experience a loss of passive immunity.
B. They do not have well-developed lung musculature.
C. They are spending a lot of time around playmates and classmates.
D. All of the above

D. All of the above

The pulse rate of a toddler is:
A. 80 to 140 beats/min
B. 90 to 150 beats/min
C. 90 to 180 beats/min
D. 100 to 160 beats/min

B. 90 to 150 beats/min

A school-age child looking for approval from his peers and society is demonstrating what kind of reasoning?
A. Preconventional reasoning
B. Conventional reasoning
C. Postconventional reasoning
D. Trust and mistrust

B. Conventional reasoning

Self-concept is:
A. our perception of ourselves.
B. how we feel about ourselves.
C. how we fit in with peers.
D. how we react to certain situations.

A. our perception of ourselves.

Why should you be concerned about a 16-year-old patient who seems depressed?
A. She could be exhibiting rebellious behavior.
B. She has just finished her growth spurt and may be disappointed in the results.
C. Adolescents are at a higher risk for suicide.
D. She may be having unprotected sex.

C. Adolescents are at a higher risk for suicide.

Why do finances become an issue during middle adulthood?
A. Middle adults are often supporting both their children and their parents.
B. Middle adults make less money than early adults.
C. Their deteriorating health makes it difficult to get to work.
D. Hearing loss prevents them from working.

A. Middle adults are often supporting both their children and their parents.

Why is breathing more labor intensive for the elderly?
A. The size of the airway increases and the surface area of the alveoli decreases.
B. The natural elasticity of the lungs decreases.
C. The overall strength of the intercostal muscles and the diaphragm decreases.
D. All of the above

D. All of the above

A normal systolic blood pressure for a 30-year-old is between:
Select one:
A. 70 and 140 mm Hg.
B. 80 and 120 mm Hg.
C. 60 and 120 mm Hg.
D. 90 and 140 mm Hg.

D. 90 and 140 mm Hg.

Atherosclerosis is defined as ________.
Select one:
A. the buildup of plaque inside blood vessels
B. dilation of the arteries
C. constriction of the blood vessels
D. the blockage of a coronary artery

D. the blockage of a coronary artery

Children of which age group are considered toddlers?
Select one:
A. 3-6 years
B. Over 6 years
C. 1-3 years
D. 1 month to 1 year

C. 1-3 years

In preconventional reasoning, children:
Select one:
A. act almost purely to avoid punishment and to get what they want.
B. make decisions based on their conscience.
C. look for approval from their peers and society.
D. blame their actions on what they have observed in older children.

A. act almost purely to avoid punishment and to get what they want.

Older adults frequently ___________.
Select one:
A. are able to increase their muscle mass
B. take multiple medications
C. experience a decrease in body fat as they age
D. are unable to overcome medical problems

B. take multiple medications

Physical changes that typically occur in early adults include an:
Select one:
A. increase in height because of spinal disc expansion.
B. increase in fatty tissue, which leads to weight gain.
C. increase in respiratory rate due to increased metabolism.
D. increase in muscle strength and reflexes.

B. increase in fatty tissue, which leads to weight gain.

The areas of the infant’s skull that have not yet fused together are called ________.
Select one:
A. fontanelles
B. cranial valleys
C. sutures
D. ventricles

A. fontanelles

The average pulse rate of persons between 19 and 60 years of age is typically:
Select one:
A. 90 beats/min.
B. 80 beats/min.
C. 70 beats/min.
D. 60 beats/min.

C. 70 beats/min.

The human body should be functioning at its optimal level between the ages of:
Select one:
A. 25 and 35 years.
B. 21 and 30 years.
C. 19 and 25 years.
D. 18 and 22 years.

C. 19 and 25 years.

What is the normal respiratory rate for an adult?
Select one:
A. 12-20 breaths/min
B. 15-30 breaths/min
C. 40-60 breaths/min
D. 25-50 breaths/min

A. 12-20 breaths/min

When you are communicating with an older patient, it is important to remember that:
Select one:
A. deafness and blindness are a normal part of the process of aging.
B. the majority of older patients experience a loss of low-frequency hearing.
C. most older patients are confused due to a decrease in brain cells.
D. age-related changes diminish the effectiveness of the eyes and ears.

D. age-related changes diminish the effectiveness of the eyes and ears.

Which of the following describes the Moro reflex?
Select one:
A. The neonate opens his or her arms wide, spreads his or her fingers, and seems to grasp at something after being startled.
B. An infant’s heart rate decreases secondary to hypoxia because he or she depends heavily on the heart rate to perfuse the body.
C. When the sole of the foot is stroked with a blunt object, the big toe lifts upward and the other toes fan outward.
D. When something touches a neonate’s cheek, he or she instinctively turns his or her head toward the touch.

A. The neonate opens his or her arms wide, spreads his or her fingers, and seems to grasp at something after being startled.

Which of the following is a physical change that typically occurs in the adolescent age group?
Select one:
A. Secondary sexual development begins.
B. Muscle and bone growth both decrease.
C. The systolic blood pressure decreases.
D. The normal pulse rate steadily increases.

A. Secondary sexual development begins.

Which of the following is NOT a common factor that would affect a 75-year-old patient’s vital signs?
Select one:
A. Medical conditions
B. Overall health
C. Medications
D. Increased weight

D. Increased weight

You are dispatched to a call for a 4-month-old infant with respiratory distress. While you prepare to take care of this child, you must remember that:
Select one:
A. an infant’s head should be placed in a flexed position to prevent obstruction.
B. small infants are nose breathers and require clear nasal passages at all times.
C. assisted ventilations in infants often need to be forceful to inflate their lungs.
D. the infant’s proportionately small tongue often causes an airway obstruction.

B. small infants are nose breathers and require clear nasal passages at all times.

Infants are often referred to as "belly breathers" because:
A. their rib cage is less rigid and the ribs sit horizontally.
B. an infant’s ribs are brittle and are less able to expand.
C. their intercostal muscles are not functional.
D. their diaphragm does not receive impulses from the brain.

A. their rib cage is less rigid and the ribs sit horizontally.

The pulse rate of a child from ages 6 to 12 years is approximately:
A. 60 to 100 beats/min.
B. 70 to 120 beats/min.
C. 90 to 140 beats/min.
D. 100 to 150 beats/min.

B. 70 to 120 beats/min.

When assessing an 80-year-old patient in shock, it is important to remember that:
A. it is common to see a more significant increase in heart rate than what would be expected in younger adults.
B. age-related changes in the cardiovascular system may make the patient less able to compensate for decreased perfusion.
C. the patient’s cardiac output is able to increase by nearly 200% in response to the decrease in perfusion.
D. in older adults, it is especially common to observe a significant decrease in heart rate in response to shock.

B. age-related changes in the cardiovascular system may make the patient less able to compensate for decreased perfusion.

Which of the following is an anatomic difference between children and adults?
A. The ribcage of an infant is less flexible than an adult’s.
B. An infant’s tongue is proportionately larger than an adult’s.
C. The trachea of an infant is proportionately longer than an adult’s.
D. An infant’s head accounts for less body weight than an adult’s.

B. An infant’s tongue is proportionately larger than an adult’s

Which of the following statements regarding middle adults is correct?
A. Cardiovascular health becomes an issue in this age group, as does the greater incidence of cancer.
B. Women in the middle adult age group typically experience menopause in their late 50s or early 60s.
C. Significant impairments in hearing and vision begin to occur in persons between the ages of 41 and 44 years.
D. Increased cholesterol levels in the middle adult age group often do not respond to exercise and diet.

A. Cardiovascular health becomes an issue in this age group, as does the greater incidence of cancer.

Why does the incidence of diabetes mellitus increase with age?
A. decreased food intake, decreased weight gain, and decreased blood sugar levels
B. decreased physical activity, increased weight gain, and decreased insulin production
C. increased physical activity, increased food intake, and increased insulin production
D. decreased physical activity, increased weight gain, and decreased blood sugar levels

B. decreased physical activity, increased weight gain, and decreased insulin production

With increasing age, the heart must work harder to move the blood effectively because:
A. the blood vessels become stiff.
B. the arteries dilate significantly.
C. diastolic blood pressure decreases.
D. the blood thickens as a person ages.

A. the blood vessels become stiff.

You are assessing a 13-month-old female who is running a fever and has been vomiting. While you are performing your physical examination on this child, you will MOST likely find that she:
A. is unable to track your movements with her eyes.
B. responds to her name but is fearful of your presence.
C. will readily allow you to separate her from her mother.
D. has bulging fontanelles secondary to severe dehydration.

B. responds to her name but is fearful of your presence.

You suspect that a 75-year-old man has internal injuries after he fell and struck his ribs and abdomen on the corner of a table. When assessing and treating an injured patient of this age, you must recall that:
A. his ability to physiologically compensate for his injury may be impaired due to an inability to increase cardiac output.
B. it is not uncommon to observe heart rates in excess of 150 beats/min in elderly patients with internal injuries.
C. blood pressure is usually adequately maintained because the blood vessels of older people can contract easily.
D. functional blood volume in patients of this age steadily increases due to increased production of red blood cells.

A. his ability to physiologically compensate for his injury may be impaired due to an inability to increase cardiac output.

Kidney function declines by _______ between the ages of 20 and 90 years.
A. 10%
B. 50%
C. 45%
D. 20%

B. 50%

An adolescent is a person between the ages of:
A. 6 and 12 years.
B. 3 and 6 years.
C. 12 and 18 years.
D. 10 and 19 years.

C. 12 and 18 years.

Stealing from a parent’s wallet and denying it when caught is an example of _______ reasoning.
A. postconventional
B. psychosocial
C. conventional
D. preconventional

D. preconventional

One consequence of the loss of neurons among elderly persons is a(n):
A. change in sleep patterns.
B. steady decline in intelligence.
C. inability to reproduce.
D. loss of physical skills

A. change in sleep patterns.

From birth to 1 month old, a person is called a(n):
A. infant.
B. toddler.
C. neonate.
D. newborn.

C. neonate.

The maximum life expectancy for humans is estimated to be _______ years.
A. 120
B. 78
C. 67
D. 56

A. 120

What do middle adults tend to focus their time and energy on?
A. Raising a family
B. Excelling in a career
C. Achieving life goals
D. Creating a self-image

C. Achieving life goals

When encountering a patient with depressed fontanelles, you should suspect:
A. respiratory distress.
B. dehydration.
C. atherosclerosis.
D. nephrosis.

B. dehydration.

What is ‘vital capacity’?
A. The volume of blood moved by each contraction of the heart
B. The maximum thickness of the meninges
C. The volume of air moved during the deepest points of respiration
D. The amount of air left in the lungs following exhalation

C. The volume of air moved during the deepest points of respiration

Clingy behavior and the fear of unfamiliar people or places are normal among 10-to 18-month-old children and are commonly caused by _______ anxiety.
A. bonding
B. separation
C. avoidant
D. mistrust

B. separation

Diastolic blood pressure tends to _______ with age.
A. decrease
B. compensate
C. increase
D. decompensate

C. increase

Work, family, and stress best describe the life stage known as:
A. middle adulthood.
B. adolescence.
C. late adulthood.
D. early adulthood.

D. early adulthood.

At what age can an infant normally start tracking objects with his or her eyes and recognizing familiar faces?
A. 7 months
B. 2 months
C. 4 months
D. 10 months

B. 2 months

You are dispatched to a public park in the middle of a sprawling for an arm injury. You arrive to find a crying 8-year-old boy cradling his swollen deformed left forearm. His friends tell you that he was holding onto the bars of the play structure and that his arm ‘snapped’ when he jumped into the sand below. You would expect this boy’s pulse to be:
A. between 60 and 80 beats/min.
B. higher than 150 beats/min.
C. most likely above 90 beats/min.
D. around 70 beats/min

C. most likely above 90 beats/min.

You are dispatched to a public park in the middle of a sprawling for an arm injury. You arrive to find a crying 8-year-old boy cradling his swollen deformed left forearm. His friends tell you that he was holding onto the bars of the play structure and that his arm ‘snapped’ when he jumped into the sand below. An adult bystander tells you that the boy kept trying to impress his friends with more and more dangerous stunts on the play structure prior to the injury. This is an indication of ________ reasoning.
A. conventional
B. preconventional
C. unconventional
D. postconventional

A. conventional

You are dispatched to a public park in the middle of a sprawling for an arm injury. You arrive to find a crying 8-year-old boy cradling his swollen deformed left forearm. His friends tell you that he was holding onto the bars of the play structure and that his arm ‘snapped’ when he jumped into the sand below. You would expect to find a respiratory rate of between _______ and _______ breaths/min with this patient.
A. 12; 20
B. 15; 20
C. 10; 15
D. 20; 30

B. 15; 20

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