EMT Chapter 6 Review

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An infant’s blood pressure typically increases with age because:

Blood pressure directly corresponds to body weight

You are dispatched to a call for a 4-month-old infant with respiratory distress. While you prepare to take care of this child, you must remember that:

Small infants are nose breathers and require clear nasal passages at all times.

Infants are often referred to as "belly breathers" because:

Their rib cage is less rigid and the ribs sit horizontally.

An infant or small child’s airway can be occluded if it is overextended or overflexed because:

The occiput is proportionately large and the trachea is flexible.

What is the Moro reflex?

The neonate opens his or her arms wide, spreads his or her fingers, and seems to grasp at something after being startled.

The anterior fontanelle fuses together between the ages of:

9 and 18 months.

What are noticeable characteristics of a 9-month-old infant?

Places objects in the mouth, pulls himself or herself up

In contrast to secure attachment, anxious-avoidant attachment occurs when a child:

Shows little emotional response to a parent or caregiver following repeated rejection.

At what age does separation anxiety typically peak in infants and small children?

10 to 18 months

An infant or small toddler would MOST likely gain trust in an individual who:

Provides an organized, routine environment.

The pulse rate of a child from ages 6 to 12 years is approximately:

70 to 120 beats/min.

In pre-conventional reasoning, children:

Act almost purely to avoid punishment and to get what they want.

Secondary sexual development begins during which age group?

Adolesence

The human body should be functioning at its optimal level between the ages of:

19 and 25 years.

The low normal systolic blood pressure for a 30-year-old is:

90 mm Hg.

An Increase in fatty tissue, and weight gain begins to manifest in which age group?

Early Adult

The average pulse rate of individuals between 19 and 60 years of age is typically:

70 beats/min.

Why do middle adults commonly experience financial concerns?

They are preparing for retirement but must still manage everyday financial demands.

At present, the average life expectancy is ________ years, while the maximum life expectancy is estimated at ________ years.

78, 120

The decline in cardiac function that commonly occurs in late adulthood is MOST often related to:

Atherosclerosis.

You suspect that a 75-year-old man has internal injuries after he fell and struck his ribs and abdomen on the corner of a table. When assessing and treating an injured patient of this age, you must recall that:

His ability to physiologically compensate for his injury may be impaired due to an inability to increase cardiac output.

With increasing age, the heart must work harder to move the blood effectively because:

The blood vessels become stiff.

When assessing an 80-year-old patient in shock, it is important to remember that:

Age-related changes in the cardiovascular system may make the patient less able to compensate for decreased perfusion.

Breathing is often more labor intensive in older adults because the:

Elasticity of the lungs decreases.

In late adults, the amount of air left in the lungs after expiration of the maximum amount of air:

Increases, which hampers diffusion of gases because of stagnant air that remains in the alveoli.

Why does the incidence of diabetes mellitus increase with age?

Decreased physical activity, increased weight gain, and decreased insulin production

Age-related changes in the renal system result in:

A decreased ability to clear wastes from the body and a decreased ability to conserve fluids when needed.

The risk of bleeding in the skull, which increases with age, is MOST directly related to:

Shrinkage of the brain.

When communicating with an older patient, it is important to remember that:

Age-related changes diminish the effectiveness of the eyes and ears.

According to the terminal drop hypothesis:

Mental function is presumed to decline in the 5 years preceding death.

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