EMT Chapter 20

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A 19-year-old female was stung multiple times on the legs by fire ants. She states that she is allergic to fire ants, but does not carry her own epinephrine. The patient is conscious and alert and complains of pain to the area of the bites. Her blood pressure is 122/70 mm Hg, her pulse is 100 beats/min and strong, and her respirations are 18 breaths/min and unlabored. You should:

administer oxygen and transport her to the hospital

A 37-year-old male is having a severe allergic reaction to penicillin. He does not have an epinephrine auto-injector and your protocols do not allow you to carry epinephrine on the ambulance. How should you proceed with the treatment of this patient?

Administer oxygen, transport at once, and request a paramedic intercept

After administering 0.3 mg of epinephrine via auto-injector to a 22-year-old woman with an allergic reaction, you note improvement in her breathing and dissipation of her hives. However, she is still anxious and tachycardic. You should:

monitor her closely but recall that anxiety and tachycardia are side effects of epinephrine

Anaphylaxis caused by stinging insects is typically an allergic reaction to ____________ rather than the bite or sting itself.
A. injected poison
B. irritating toxin
C. deadly venom
D. All of these answers are correct

D

Anaphylaxis is MOST accurately defined as a(n):

extreme allergic reaction that may affect multiple body systems

At the site of the injury, signs and symptoms of an animal or insect bite or sting may include pain, localized heat, and a wheal, which appears as __________.

a raised, well-defined area of the skin

Care for a victim of an immunologic emergency who is severely hypotensive should include which of the following?

Apply high-flow oxygen therapy, place the patient in a shock position, and help maintain the patient’s body temperature

Epinephrine stimulates the ________ response, increasing blood pressure and relieving bronchospasm.

sympathetic

Patients may experience allergic reactions to which of the following substances?
a. Insect or animal bites and stings
b. Plant material
c. Food and medications
d. All of these answers are correct

D

The adult epinephrine auto-injector delivers ______ mg of epinephrine, and the infant-child auto-injector delivers ______ mg.

0.3; 0.15

The effects of epinephrine are typically observed within _________ following administration.

1 minute

The goal of invaders such as bacteria and viruses is to __________.

use a human body as a home

The stinger from a honeybee should be:

scraped away from the skin

Urticaria is the medical term for:

hives

When a foreign substance invades the body, the body will __________
A. protect itself
B. go on alert
C. attempt to inactivate the foreign substance
D. All of these answers are correct

D

When an allergic reaction proceeds to life-threatening anaphylaxis, it will usually do so __________.

quickly, within 30 minutes

Which of the following medications blocks the release of histamines?

Diphenhydramine (Benadryl)

Which of the following signs/symptoms are indicative of respiratory involvement of an allergic reaction?

Tightness in the chest or throat

Which of the following sounds indicates swelling of the upper airway?

Stridor

Which of the following would MOST likely provide clues regarding the source of a patient’s allergic reaction?

The environment in which the patient is found

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