EMT Chapter 12 – !!!!

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Which of the following is a nonhemorrhagic cause of hypovolemic shock?


Why is it most important to frequently reassess vital signs for a patient with possible shock?

To observe trends in the patient’s condition

One of the primary waste products of normal cellular metabolism that must be removed from the body by the lungs is:

Carbon Dioxide

A 59-year-old male presents with severe vomiting and diarrhea of 3 days’ duration. He is confused and diaphoretic, and his radial pulses are absent. His blood pressure is 78/50 mm Hg. After applying supplemental oxygen, you should:

prepare for immediate transport.

A 27-year-old male was stabbed in the chest during a disagreement at a poker game. As you approach him, you see that a knife is impaled in his chest. Before you make physical contact with the patient, it is MOST important to:

Follow standard precautions.

Patients develop septic shock secondary to:

poor vessel function and severe volume loss.

Shock is the result of:

hypoperfusion to the cells of the body.

Which of the following patients is in decompensated shock?

A 20-year-old female with absent radial pulses and dilated pupils

A construction worker fell approximately 30 feet. He is semiconscious with rapid, shallow respirations. Further assessment reveals deformity to the thoracic region of his spine. His blood pressure is 70/50 mm Hg, his pulse is 66 beats/min and weak, and his skin is warm and dry. In addition to spinal immobilization and rapid transport, the MOST appropriate treatment for this patient includes:

assisted ventilation, thermal management, and elevation of the lower extremities.

You are on the scene of an unresponsive patient struck by a vehicle. You have completed the primary assessment. What should you do next?

Transport the patient

Hypotension in a child with blunt or penetrating trauma is particularly significant because:

it often indicates the loss of half of his or her blood volume.

Cardiogenic shock may result from all of the following, EXCEPT:

Increased preload.

Capillary sphincters are:

circular muscular walls that regulate blood flow through the capillaries.

Which of the following would MOST likely result in hemorrhagic shock?

Liver laceration.

Widespread vasodilation, increased capillary permeability, and bronchoconstriction are the result of ___________.

anaphylactic shock

Temporary, widespread vasodilation and syncope caused by a sudden nervous system reaction MOST accurately describes

psychogenic shock.

The body’s attempt to maintain balance of all systems of the body is called ________.


All of the following conditions should make you suspect shock, EXCEPT:

ischemic stroke

In order to recognize and treat early shock, the EMT must ___________.

understand the pathophysiology of shock

Which of the following will assume control of involuntary functions during shock?

Sympathetic nervous system

What are the three parts of the Perfusion triangle?

A pump- the heart A set of pipes- the blood vessels or arteries The contents- the blood.

Cardiogenic shock

Caused by inadequate function of the heart, or pump failure.


The presence of abnormally large amounts of fluid between cells in the body tissue, causing swelling of the affected area.

Obstructive shock

Caused by a mechanical obstruction which prevents an adequate volume of blood to fill the heart chambers.

Pulmonary embolism

A blood clot that occurs in the pulmonary circulation and blocks the flow of blood through the pulmonary vessels.

Distributive shock

Results when there is a widespread dilation of the small arterioles, small venules, or both

What are the four most common types of distributive shock?

Septic, Neurogenic, Anaphylactic, and Psychogenic.

Hypovolemic shock

The result of an inadequate amount of fluid or volume in the circulatory system.

What is the last factor to be affected by shock and once it does its too late?

Blood pressure

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