EMT Basic Chapter 5

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A 5-year-old boy has fallen and has a severe deformity of the forearm near the wrist. He has possibly sustained a fracture of the:

distal forearm

A by-product of involuntary muscle contraction and relaxation is:

heat

A fracture of the humerus just above the elbow would be described as a:

distal humerus fracture

A patient has a blood pressure of 130/70 mm Hg. The "130" represents:

ventricular contraction

A patient has fractured both femurs. Anatomically, these injuries would be described as being:

bilateral

A patient in a semireclined position with the head elevated to facilitate breathing is in the _______ position:

fowler’s

A person’s bones would become brittle if he or she was deficient in:

calcium

A young male jumped from a tree and landed feet first. What aspect of his body has sustained the initial injury?

plantar

Abnormalities in metabolism are most likely caused by dysfunction of the:

pancreas

Activities such as walking, talking, and writing are regulated exclusively by the:

somatic nervous system

All necessary life functions are coordinated in what part of the brain?

brain stem

An increase in heart rate and contractility occurs due to stimulation of:

beta-1 receptors

An intoxicated 40-year-old male is found lying face down. How would you document his body’s position?

prone

Anterior to the knee is a specialized bone called the:

patella

As the bronchus divides into smaller bronchioles, the terminal ends of these smaller passages form the:

alveoli

At rest, the normal adult heart rate should not exceed

100 beats/min

Bile is produced by the liver and concentrated and stored in the:

gallbladder

Both areas of the pons are used to:

augment respiration’s during emotional or physical stress

Breathing occurs as the result of a(n):

increase in carbon dioxide, which decreases the pH of the CSF

Capillary sphincter closure during internal or external bleeding is detrimental because:

waste products are not removed and nutrients are not delivered to the cels

Cardiac output(CO) is affected by:

stroke volume and heart rate

Contraction of the right ventricle causes:

blood to flow into the pulmonary circulation

Dead space is the portion of the respiratory system that:

contains no alveoli and does not participate in gas exchange

Deoxygenated blood from the abdomen, pelvis, and lower extremities is returned to the right atrium via the:

inferior vena cava

During each heartbeat, _______ of blood is ejected from the adult heart. This is called stroke volume (SV)

70 to 80 mL

Each pelvic bone is formed by the fusion of the:

ilium, ischium, and pubis

Hemoglobin is a molecule that attaches to ______ and carries oxygen.

erythrocytes

How does respiration differ from ventilation

respiration is the process of gas exchange, whereas ventilation is the simple movement of air between the lungs and the environment

If an average-sized patient’s chest barely moves during inhalation, even if his or her respiratory rate is normal, you should suspect that:

minute volume is decreased

In relation to the chest, the back is:

posterior

In relation to the wrist, the elbow is:

proximal

Key hormones of the sympathetic nervous system include:

epinephrine and norepinephrine

Large amounts of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is generated when:

the cells function with adequate oxygen

Movement or motion away from the body’s midline is called:

abduction

Negative pressure breathing involves:

a drop in pressure within the chest cavity

Oxygen and carbon dioxide pass across the alveolar membrane in the lungs through a process called:

diffusion

Pathophysiologyis the study of the functional change that occur when the body reacts to a particular:

disease

Relative to the adult’s airway, the child’s:

pharynx is smaller and less deeply curved

Relative to the kidneys, the liver is:

unilateral

Select the areas of the spinal column is descending order.

cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral, coccyx

Signs of adequate breathing in the adult include all of the following, except:

a reduction in tidal volume

Skeletal muscle is also called:

voluntary muscles

Stimulation of alpha-adrenergic receptors result in:

constriction of the blood vessels

Stimulation of the parasympathetic nervous system would result in:

a slow heart rate

The air you breathe is ____ oxygen, and the air you exhale is _____ oxygen.

21%, 16%

The amount of air that remain is the lungs simply to keep them open is called:

residual volume

The airway that can be palpated on the anterior surface of the foot is the:

dorsalis pedis

The atlas is the:

first cervical vertebra, which articulates with the skull

The automatic nervous system controls all of the following functions, except:

breath holding

The average adult has approximately _______of blood in his or her body.

6L

The axial skeleton is composed of the:

skull, face, thorax, and vertebral column

The backup system of respiratory control, which is based on low concentrations of oxygen in the blood, is called:

hypoxic drive

The bones of the forearm are called the:

radius and ulna

The bones that comprise the fingers and toes are called:

phalanges

The bony prominence on the lateral/ superior aspect of the thigh is called the:

greater trochanter

The brain connects to the spinal cord through a large opening at the base of the skull called the:

foramen magnum

The carpal bones form the:

wrist

The central nervous system is composed of the:

brain and spinal cord

The cervical spine is composed of ______vertebrae.

seven

The circulation of blood within an organ or tissue in adequate amounts to meet the cells’ current needs called:

perfusion

The connecting nerve, a nerve of the peripheral nervous system, functions by:

connecting the sensory and motor nerves and bypassing the brain

The descending aorta branches into the:

common illiac arteries

The diaphragm and intercostal muscles contract during:

inhalation

The diaphragm is a unique muscle because it:

is both a voluntary and involuntary muscle

The distal aspect of the tibia forms the:

medial malleolus

The dorsal respiratory group(DRG) is a part of the brain stem and is responsible for:

initiating inspiration

The elbow is an example of a ____joint

hinge

The electrical of the heart normally begins at the:

sinoatrial node

The exchange of oxygen and nutrients for waste products of metabolism occurs at the cellular level in the:

capillaries

The exocrine gland of the pancreas secretes:

pancreatic juice

The femoral head forms a ball-and-socket joint with the:

acetabulum

The firm cartilaginous ring that forms the inferior portion of the larynx is called the:

cricoid cartilage

The heart muscle is called the:

myocardium

The Hering-Breuer reflex is stimulated when:

stretch receptors in the chest wall detect that the lungs are too full

The inferior cartilaginous tip of the sternum is called the:

xiphoid process

The kidneys and pancreas are called retroperitonel organs because they:

are located behind the abdominal cavity

The large, flat, triangular bone that overlies the posterior thoracic wall is called the:

scapula

The largest portion of the brain, which is commonly referred to as the "gray matter," is called the:

cerebrum

The leaf-shaped flap of tissue that prevents food and liquid from entering the trachea during swallowing is called:

epiglottis

The left side of the heart receives oxygenated blood from the lungs through the:

pulmonary veins

The major artery that supplies all other arteries with blood is the:

aorta

The most distal four spinal vertebrae, which are fused together, form the:

coccyx

The most superior portion of the sternum is called the:

manubrium

The nose, chin, umbilicus(navel), and spine are examples of ______ anatomic structures.

midline

The part of the brain that controls the left side of the body is the:

right side cerebrum

The phase of the cardiac cycle in which the ventricles fill with blood is called:

diastole

The primary function of the right atrium is to:

receive blood from the vena cava

The primary organ responsible for absorption of products of digestion is the:

small intestine

The supporting bone of the arm is the:

humerus

The topographic term used to describe the location of the body parts are closer toward the midline or center of the body is:

medial

The topographic term used to describe the part of the body that is nearer to the feet is:

inferior

The vocal cords are located in the:

larynx

The wastes products of aerobic metabolism include:

carbon dioxide and water

The_____fills the entire anteroposterier depth of the right upper quadrant(RUQ) of the abdomen.

liver

The _____ is made up of the maxilla and zygoma, as well as the frontal bone of the cranium.

orbit

The ______ of the heart is the inferior portion of the left ventricles.

apex

The _____plane separates the body into left and right halves.

midsagittal

The _____ portion of the spinal column is joined to the iliac bones of the pelvis.

sacrum

The _____ is a muscular dome that forms the inferior boundary of the thorax, separating the thorax from the abdomen.

diaphragm

Together, the right and left lungs contain how many lobes?

five

Trauma to the _____lobe of the brain wold likely result in visual disturbances.

occipital

Trendelenburg’s position is most accurately defined as a:

supine position with the legs elevated 6" to 12" higher than the head

Twelve pairs of ribs attach to what section of the spinal column?

thoracic

Urine is transported from the kidneys to the urinary bladder via the:

ureters

What function does the pneumotaxic center serve?

inhibits the DRG, resulting in shorter, faster respirations

What happens when blood volume is lost from the body?

the arteries contact to increase the blood pressure

What is the function of the fallopian tubes?

transport a mature egg to the urterus

What is the main function of platelets?

initial formation of a blood clot

What is the minute volume of a patient with a tidal volume of 500 mL, a dead space volume of 150 mL, and a respiratory rate of 16 breaths/min?

5,600 mL

What layer of the skin is composed of fatty tissue and serves as an insulator for the body?

subcutaneous

What set of nerves is responsible for carrying information from the body to the central nervous system?

sensory

What three bones make up the shoulder girdle?

clavicle, scapula, humerus

Which of the following anatomic terms is synonymous with the word "dorsal"?

posterior

Which of the following are central pulses?

femoral and carotid

Which of the following arteries does not carry highly oxygenated blood?

pulmonary

Which of the following glands regulates the function of all other endocrine glands in the body?

pituitary

Which of the following is a function of the upper airway?

warms and humidifies inhaled air

Which of the following is most characteristic of adequate breathing in an adult?

respirations of 20 breaths/min and bilateral chest movement

Which of the following is not a facial bone?

mastoid

Which of the following is not a function of the skin?

metabolic coordination

Which of the following organs is not part of the digestive system?

kidney

Which of the following organs or structures lies within the retroperitonel space?

kidneys

Which of the following signs of respiratory distress is typically unique to infants and children

seesaw respirations

Which is the following skin layers contains sweat and oil glands, hair follicles, blood vessels, and nerve endings?

dermis

Which of the following statements regarding agonal respirations is correct?

agonal respirations are ineffective and need to be assisted

Which of the following statements regarding anaerobic metabolism is correct?

anaerobic metabolism produces lactic acid and occurs when cellular is limited

Which of the following statements regarding nervous system conrol of the cardiovascular system is correct?

baroreceptors located throughout the body provide information to the brain regarding the blood pressure

Which of the following statements regarding plasma is correct?

plasma transports the blood cells and nutrients

Which f the following statements regarding smooth muscle is correct?

a person has no voluntary control over smooth muscle

Which of the following statements regarding the heart is correct?

it is under control of the autonomic nervous system

Which of the following statements regarding the kidneys is correct?

the kidneys eliminate toxic waste products from the body and control its balance of water and salt

Which of the following statements regarding the medulla oblongata is correct?

the medulla is sensitive to pH changes and sends messages via the phrenic nerve to contract the diaphragm

Which of the following structures does not contain smooth muscle?

skeletal system

Which of the following systems is responsible for releasing hormones that regulate body activities?

endocrine

Which organ lies in the lateral and posterior portion of the left upper quadrant(LUQ) of the abdomen?

spleen

Which part of the central nervous system is responsible for coordinating bodily movement such as writing or sewing?

cerebellum

White blood cells are also called leukocytes and function by:

protecting the body from infection

Worn out blood cells, foreign substances, and bacteria are filtered from the blood by the:

spleen

Your ability to remain awake is a function of the:

reticular activating system

_____ pressure is the pressure exerted by a liquid and occurs when blood is moved through the artery at relatively high pressure

hydrostatic

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