EMS Chapter 36

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Which of the following statements regarding patients with intellectual disabilities is correct?
A.Speaking with the patient’s family is the least effective way to determine how much
the patient understands.
B.Most patients with intellectual disabilities have normal cognitive function, but
abnormal physical features.
C.Patients with intellectual disabilities are susceptible to the same disease processes
as other patients.
D.An intellectual disability differs from mental retardation in that it is the result of a
congenital abnormality.

C.Patients with intellectual disabilities are susceptible to the same disease processes as other patients.

Which of the following conditions would MOST likely be encountered in a patient with cerebral
palsy?
A. Paralysis
B. Seizure disorder
C. Type 2 diabetes
D. Brain tumors

B. Seizure disorder

Spina bifida is defined as:
A. congenital inflammation of the spinal cord, usually in the neck.
B. a birth defect in which the child is born without spinal vertebrae.
C. a birth defect caused by incomplete closure of the spinal column.
D. chronic pressure on the brain caused by excess cerebrospinal fluid.

C. a birth defect caused by incomplete closure of the spinal column.

A 13-year-old child is on a home ventilator. The parents called because the mechanical ventilator is
malfunctioning and the child has increasing respiratory distress. You should:
A.reset the ventilator by unplugging it for 30 to 60 seconds.
B. place a call to the home health agency treating this patient.
C. disconnect the ventilator and apply a tracheostomy collar.
D. attempt to troubleshoot the mechanical ventilator problem.

C. disconnect the ventilator and apply a tracheostomy collar.

According to the "E" in the DOPE mnemonic, which of the following actions should you perform to
troubleshoot inadequate ventilation in a patient with a tracheostomy tube?
A. Attempt to pass a suction catheter into the tube.
B. Check the mechanical ventilator for malfunction.
C. Look for blood or other secretions in the tube.
D. Listen to breath sounds to assess for a pneumothorax.

B. Check the mechanical ventilator for malfunction.

The purpose of a ventricular peritoneum shunt is to:
A. divert excess cerebrospinal fluid to the ventricles of the brain.
B. prevent excess cerebrospinal fluid from accumulating in the brain.
C. remove fluid from the abdomen of patients with right-sided heart failure.
D. monitor pressure within the skull in patients with a head injury.

B. prevent excess cerebrospinal fluid from accumulating in the brain.

You are assessing a 440-lb man who complains of shortness of breath and lower back pain. The
patient is conscious and alert, his blood pressure is 148/98 mm Hg, and his heart rate is 120
beats/min. Your MOST immediate action should be to:
A. avoid placing him in a supine position if possible and administer oxygen.
B.notify the receiving facility and advise them of the patient’s weight and status.
C.perform a secondary assessment, focusing on his respiratory system and back.
D.ask a member of your team to locate the best route to move him to the
ambulance.

A. avoid placing him in a supine position if possible and administer oxygen.

Which of the following statements regarding interaction with the caregiver of a child or adult with
special health care needs is correct?
A. In general, the EMT should only speak with a certified home health care provider
because he or she is the expert on the patient’s illness.
B. Communication with the patient’s caregiver or family members is important because
they are the most familiar with the patient’s condition.
C. In most cases, it is more appropriate for the EMT to contact medical control prior to
speaking with the patient’s primary caregiver.
D. Before performing an assessment of the patient’s ABCs, the EMT should ask the
caregiver about the patient’s medical condition.

B. Communication with the patient’s caregiver or family members is important because they are the most familiar with the patient’s condition.

Which of the following would be the MOST practical method of communicating with a hearingimpaired
patient until his or her hearing aids can be located?
A. Attempting to use body language to determine the problem
B. Using a high-pitched voice while speaking directly into the ear
C. Contacting dispatch and requesting a sign language interpreter
D. Using a piece of paper and writing utensil to ask questions

D. Using a piece of paper and writing utensil to ask questions

Under what circumstances is a left ventricular assist device used?
A. To permanently replace the function of one or both of the ventricles
B. To ensure that the ventricles contract at an adequate and consistent rate
C. To reduce ventricular pumping force in patients with aortic aneurysms
D. As a bridge to heart transplantation while a donor heart is being located

D. As a bridge to heart transplantation while a donor heart is being located

Which of the following statements regarding autism is correct?
A. Autism affects females four times greater than males.
B. Most cases of autism are diagnosed by 3 years of age.
C. The majority of patients with autism do not speak at all.
D. Impairment of motor activity is a classic sign of autism.

B. Most cases of autism are diagnosed by 3 years of age.

Down syndrome is a genetic defect that occurs as the result of:
A. a sperm that contains 24 chromosomes.
B. an extra pair of chromosomes.
C. a triplication of chromosome 21.
D. a separation of chromosome 21.

C. a triplication of chromosome 21.

A surgical procedure that creates an opening between the intestine and the surface of the body that
allows for elimination of waste products is called a(n):
A.intestinal shunt.
B. gastric stoma.
C. colostomy.
D. gastrostomy.

C. colostomy.

A person is said to be obese when he or she is ________ over his or her ideal weight
A. 30% or more
B. 40% or more
C. 20% or more
D. 10% or more

A. 30% or more

When caring for a patient who is visually impaired, it is important to:
tell him or her what is happening, identify noises, and describe the situation and
surroundings.
B.
leave items such as canes and walkers at the residence if the patient will be
carried on a gurney.
C.
stand to the side of the patient when speaking if his or her peripheral vision is
impaired.
D.
allow a service dog to remain with the patient at all times, even if the patient is
critically ill.

A. tell him or her what is happening, identify noises, and describe the situation and surroundings.

Common complications associated with central venous catheters include all of the following,
EXCEPT:
A. bleeding around the line.
B. rupture of a central vein.
C. clotting of the line.
D. a local infection.

B. rupture of a central vein.

According to the Emergency Medical Treatment and Active Labor Act (EMTALA):
A. a health care facility has the right to refuse assessment and treatment to a patient,
but only if his or her condition is not deemed critical.
B. a patient maintains the legal right to recant his or her consent to emergency treatment,
even after signing in to the emergency department.
C. all health care facilities must provide a medical assessment and required treatment,
regardless of the patient’s ability to pay.
D. all health care facilities are legally obligated to provide assessment and care only if
the patient is critically ill or injured.

C. all health care facilities must provide a medical assessment and required treatment, regardless of the patient’s ability to pay.

Cerebral palsy is characterized by poorly controlled ________ movement.
A. extremity
B. neck
C. eye
D. body

D. body

A 70-year-old male complains of shortness of breath. During your assessment, you note that he has
bilateral hearing aids. When you ask him questions related to his chief complaint, he does not
answer you. You can hear a whistling sound coming from his hearing aids. You should:
A. remove his hearing aids, turn up the volume, and replace them in his ears.
B. remove both of his hearing aids and use pencil and paper to communicate.
C. recognize that the batteries in his hearing aids are probably depleted.
D. try repositioning the hearing aid or remove it and turn down the volume.

D. try repositioning the hearing aid or remove it and turn down the volume.

Because a tracheostomy tube bypasses the nose and mouth:
A. secretions can build up in and around the tube.
B. bleeding or air leakage may occur around the tube.
C. severe swelling of the trachea and bronchi can occur.
D. the risk of a local infection is significantly high.

A. secretions can build up in and around the tube.

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