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Is the use of soap and water or alcohol-based rubs more effective in preventing nosocomial infections?

Study Design: Randomized Controlled Trial (RCT)

The selection is justified by the presence of the two hygienic interventions in routine care, where the use of water and soap is the control while hand rubbing with the alcohol-based solution is the experiment.

Strength and Weakness

One of the main advantages of the RCTs is superiority over observational studies, where allocation concealment minimizes bias that contributes to greater confidence in results (Concato, Shah  & Horwitz, 2000). Similarly, the comparison groups allow quantification of the attributive risk of conventional approaches and alcohol-based solution in the occurrence of nosocomial infections. However, the advantages are blemished by the huge budget as well as an extended period needed to document the outcomes.

Rationale for the Study

RCT starts with recruiting and categorizing participants into control and experimental groups. One group of providers should use the standard hygienic approach while the experimental group should utilize an alcohol-based solution. The study should be given adequate time to allow researchers document new incidences of nosocomial infections during routine care.

For patients of 70 years and older, how effective is the use of the influenza vaccine at preventing flu as compared to patients who have not received the vaccine?

Study Design: Cohort Study

The choice is justified by the need for a forward-looking investigating to assess the link between compliance with the routine influenza vaccination program and health outcomes among the elderlies.

Strengths and Weakness

One of the strengths of the cohort studies is observing ethical guidelines in scientific inquiries, where unlike in experimental explorations, the observational research progresses in a naturalistic approach (Song & Chung, 2010). Cohort studies also investigate a single exposure such as geriatric influenza vaccine, facilitating a clear temporal sequence. Nevertheless, their prospective approach makes them time-consuming and expensive.

Rationale for the Study

The study entails recruiting a significant number of individuals with shared characteristics and following them in their natural environment. For instance, senior citizens among age 70 are a cohort group because of their compromised immune system, where immunosenescence makes them more susceptible to influenza. Following them allows researchers to document the effectiveness of the influenza shots in offsetting the risk of seasonal flu.

What is the relationship between alcohol and breast cancer?

Study Design: Case Control

             The view is justified the by the ethical soundness of exploring the subject retrospectively.

Strength and Weakness

Unlike RCTs, a case-control study collects data among few study subjects. Similarly, the retrospective approach makes the design resource sensitive and time conscious. However, the results are always affected by confounders and biases (Levin, 2006).

Rationale for the Study Design

The most important aspect in implementing the research approach is recruiting cases as well as controls. While the primary element is selecting breast cancer cases with drinking history, controls should also be comparable in modifiable and unalterable predisposing factors, including BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation (Sedgwick, 2014).

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