The ruling that involves abortion stands out as the core of negotiations in the society, for decades since the 20th century, in a majority of western nations. As opposed to other contentious topics that get frequently dealt with some legal experts, the debate on abortion surpassed the boundaries of the company of juridical professions and spread into the territory of the public concluding as an affair that everybody establishes a discrete position. Further, the discourse on abortion revealed significant rifts in the society, and consequently, distressed sentiments that have resulted in mass protests, civil rebellion and unexpectedly, in murder (Good & Wodack, 1999).
In the conflict between anti-abortion and pro-life attitudes, Grisanti (2000) demonstrated that the basis for this debate remains as to whether a woman possesses the right to undertake whatever she perceives best for her body (choice), or rather whether sustaining life at all times a responsibility of humans (life). Nevertheless, both proponents fail to arrive at a final consent with their inscriptions. For instance, the pro-abortionist fails to judge themselves as anti-life notwithstanding that they do not understand that a fetus is a person. Typically, a majority of women consider themselves as pro-choice as opposed to pro-abortion, and also, the anti-abortionist is also not anti-choice (Grisanti, 2000). Therefore, despite the fact that a woman does hold the obligation to the well-being of her body, the matter of abortion impacts both the lives of the unborn child as well as that of the mother. Thus considerably, the group that disagrees with abortion professes that the choices of the mother need not have prominence over the life of the unborn child. This paper intends to articulate the discourse over abortion and target on the intervention measures between pro-life and pro-choice principal attitudes.
The heightened scrutiny that has been due to abortion, in both the United States and Austria, has resulted in multiple sociological, political as well as historical investigations. In efforts to assess, recreate and describe the preconditions, advancement, and attributes associated with the argument on abortion at a local and national level (Mesner, 2004). Apparently, there only a small section of studies that concerns the cases of abortion internationally. Therefore, at a core of the concerns, there is a political conflict that involves abortion, a disagreement between two antagonist perspectives, which operate in countries with differing political cultures and traditions (Ginsburg, 1990). Consequently, the labeling of these opponents becomes pro-choice and pro-life, that are assessed as social protests, mobilizing similar objectives respectively, based on various political, social and institutional measures (Anderson, 1992).
Besides, in accordance to diverse ethical perspectives, believers find themselves on either side of the fence. However, individual Christians powerfully dispute abortion at any incidence, while the rest only hold to the proposal that a woman should have the right to pursue an abortion (Grisanti, 2000). An explanation given by Feinberg and Feinberg (2012), suggested that abortion constitutes “the exclusion of the fetus from a woman’s uterus . . . Preliminary to its endurance outside the womb” (p. 50). In essence, there are two primary groupings of abortion namely, induced form and spontaneous. Abortion is unpremeditated when it takes naturally without external interference. Whereas, the second set comprises of a triggered abortion, which is one that is as a result of medical procedure (Grisanti, 2000).
Through the implementation of a TRIP (topic objective, relationship purpose, identity objective and process goal) to parse the pro-life and pro-choice debate in abortion, assists in outlining the aims towards the resolution of the conflict (LeBaron & Pillay, 2006). Therefore, the TRIP analysis would include the following:
Topic Objective: This involves analyzing what the disagreement is officially about? In essence, the problem objective is shared among people, however, its interpretation could be imperfect.
Relationship goal: Here there is an investigation of what are the different proponents of the attitudes on abortion, desire regarding the association? Therefore, there is a desire to preserve the status as well as to be viewed as a contributor.
Identity goal: This indicates on how the proponents desire to be perceived by other people and also, how they view themselves. Usually, there are no promoters on either side, which has multiple identity objectives.
Process aims: Which are the procedures that the contributors understand as able to intervene in the conflict?
Therefore, a crucial phase leading to the implementation of the liberty of women’s wellbeing in the situation of abortion is then an investigation of the scope, origin, and consequences of unsafe abortion. It is in an individual community and philosophy, subject to the data that is available or rather during the gathering of new data (Warriner and Shah, 2006).
Therefore, an assessment of the prevalence of abortion established a potential to formulate better and effective resolutions for the discourse that exists between pro-life and pro-choice viewpoints. In this regard the objectives should be as follows:
- To ensure that a proportion of more than 70 percent of abortions are conducted using manual vacuum aspiration and medical (non-surgical) abortion, and also the availability of women-centered services for comprehensive abortion care that is in line with National Practical Guide (FIGO, 2016).
- There is need to enhance the standards of societal awareness on the prevention of unwanted pregnancy as well as safe and unsafe abortion techniques.
- To establish an increment of approximately 55 percent from 42% of the application of contraceptive procedures through the advancement of PHC knowledge provision and evolution of an active national purchasing strategy on contraceptives.
In connection to the objectives above, a viable action plan for resolving the conflict between pro-life and pro-choice attitudes can develop as follows:
According to Skuster (2012), there is need to ameliorate the legal and control substructure that includes an operation of systems of supervision and assessments. The tasks undertaken would be:
- Advancement and ratification of models and levels of an all-inclusive Abortion Care.
- The alteration and explanation of indicators of the supervision and analysis of up to regular services of abortion including a medical statistical document.
In the plan to enhance the availability of quality services for abortion, activities to assessment get comprised of the following:
- Evolution and testing of the version of Comprehensive Abortion Care (CAC).
- Application of CAC subject to the advanced prototype and regional standards of 10 perinatal areas at the ambulatory class, namely staff coaching, furnishing the centers of perinatal, assessment and auto-surveillance policy implementation and modest repair of space (FIGO, 2016).
The development of the above plan brings together the key members of the discourse resolution whereby pro-choice and pro-life proponents concur that the link between crime and abortion or the nonsensical pregnancy debates and also thoughtful measures have contributed to the moderation in perspectives of the conflict of abortion.
Also, the Department of Health, Social Services and Public Safety (2008), postulates that the legislation and judicial bodies get mandated with a development of such policies for mediation Also, the engagement community groups, health professionals, and youths as resources towards the resolution. Costs involved could get used for retreats, workshops and community projects.
The promoters of conflict resolution on abortion are neither liberals nor conservatives (Lopez, 2012); and Card (2006), demonstrates that resolution supporters encounter the following challenges: To what extent within gestation is abortion permissible? What moral justification gives a reason to undertake an abortion? Usually, many mediators perceive that abortion is vindicated when (a) pregnancy is due to incest or rape; (b) the pregnancy poses the significant risk to the wellbeing of the woman; (c) doctors report of imminent physical damage due to the pregnancy. Furthermore, Cannold (2000) proposed that majority of people could have encountered a two-fold on the abortion issue, which relates to fear of alienation and judgment from the society.
Although particular matters emerge to be outdated, they persist to materialize to humanity as taboos. Apparently, the affairs of pro-choice and pro-life discourse appear to spend a lot of energy and time through political views, then the consideration of policy and decision makers. Whereby they provide the following: contraceptives for the youth, counseling on sex issues among women, implement sexual awareness in schools, family planning as the component of sexual education and policies that mitigate abortion. Thus, considerably, Peach (2005), considers these as the main aspects of consideration.
In according to the action plan developed in the assessment stage, the aims and timeframes below indicate progress for execution of the scheme.
Federal models and qualities on CAC based on suggestions by WHO
Execution of CAC and development of perinatal centers.
Installation of MVA equipment in 10 centers as well as provision of required supplies.
2017 – 2022
Enhancement of the medical personnel’s understanding on CAC
2008 – 2011
In connection to goals, activities to improve the resolution process would be as follows:
- To intricate the regulatory framework and advice on the logistics of protection for commodities (FIGO, 2016).
- Advance the procurement design of contraceptives access through RH
- Enhance the level of understanding of the providers such as through practical work and online learning, development of the curricula and the integration of virtual contraceptive consultation.
- Improvement of availability of contraceptives is through new contraceptives like COC, Depo-Provera, condoms, and IUD (FIGO, 2016).
To understand the outcome requires reflecting on the start when people were already undertaking contraception and surprisingly, abortion. Well, this does indicate some natural habit for people to maintain these practices. For instance, most of the literature shows a tendency of favoring abortion. Therefore, there is valid reason that people choose to apply truth and clarity in regards to what real life actual life brings to a majority of citizens globally. Therefore, according to the plan developed, the expected outcome could be as follows:
An accomplishment of approximately 99% will be registered by 2018 upon the approval of Standards and then, the enactment of regulated abortion with the Ministry of Health.
There will be a successful continuous monitoring of the indicators on the quality of care on abortion and made available on publications.
The achievement would be registered in the curricula coaching on CAC developments as well as the testing of medical professionals. Therefore, using the plan discussed the notion of eliminating abortion is through prevention of unwanted pregnancies, and that means, the use of family planning and contraception. Nevertheless, it is important to understand the ramifications of anti-abortion which can be viewed as extreme pro-life proponents whereby when an individual is born; there is still the conscience that could bring about evil or good attitudes (Lopez, 2012). For example, the consciousness of what kind of life a person lives could be detrimental to the mental well-being of the child and consequently, result in unhappy feelings, abuse or even death. On the contrary, the failure to mitigate abortion would lead to different moral ideas and practices, with masses of people involved in various perceptions according to pro-life partisans, while the debate and conflicts persist on the determination of that which is customary against that which is exceptional (Lopez, 2012).
On the other hand, failure to achieve the expected results would indicate that the law and judiciary preeminent in the ruling of policies pertaining the issue of abortion, and thus may get inclined towards the attitude of the general national understanding. Therefore, the ramifications would leave the affair in a light condition, with significant conflicting theories and philosophies of abortion with both pro-life and pro-choice proponents. The fact that the Christian faith and the Catholic Church, have a common ethical attitude with a correct and value angle, which proclaims that life, is sacred, forgiveness was not a substantial argument towards the resolution of the conflict.