Behavior

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Introduction The study of human behavior is diverse and many studies have been done trying to find more about human behavior. Many researchers have concluded that human behavior is complex and sometimes unpredictable. The environment is one of the major factors in the development of human behavior. The unpredictability of human behavior tries to show…

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Introduction   According to Martin and Pear (2007), a token economy is a system of behavior modification based on the principles of operant conditioning. The original proposal for such a system emphasized reinforcing positive behavior by awarding “tokens” for meeting positive behavioral goals. Token economies have also been implemented to decrease disruptive behaviors and increase…

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Introduction   In classical conditioning, an unconditioned stimulus (something that will always lead to a reaction of some type) leads to an unconditioned response (a natural reaction to the UCS). A neutral stimulus (NS) becomes paired with an unconditioned stimulus (UCS). This is also called the Pavlovian conditioning because Ivan Pavlov discovered classical conditioning in…

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Introduction   Motivation can be defined as “the psychological forces within a person that determine the direction of a person’s behavior in an organization, a person’s level of efforts and a person’s level of persistence in the face of obstacles” (Kanfer, 1990). In simple words, the driving force behind an action of individual is called…

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Introduction   Mary Whiton Calkins was a woman who dedicated her entire life to the field of psychology and philosophy. She is best known as the first woman president of both American Psychological and Philosophical Associations and for being denied her doctorate from Harvard. Her courage, and her ability to tide over all the obstacles…

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