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Behavioral Management and Motivational Theories

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Abstract

According to Kwok (2014), behavioral theories of management offer important concepts that administrators need to focus on while executing their administrative roles. Some of the familiar concepts in behavioral management strategies that executive team in a company need to focus on include Maslow's hierarchy of needs, which postulates that people have various desires which vary in intensity and urgency. Also, the theory of Managerial Assumption that McGregor developed play a crucial role in the improvement of the status of a given company by enhancing the productivity of the employees. Apart from the Maslow's theory and assumptions by McGregor, Edwin Locke and Victor Vroom also developed some important hypothesis which is imminent in a majority of the firms in the society. Scholars grouped various motivational theories as either content principles or cognitive theory to aid in the comprehension of the way executive team in an enterprise need to transact their activities.

Behavioral Management and Motivational Theories

Introduction

Management is an important aspect of the operations of a company as it aids in the coordination of the activities of a firm towards achieving set goals. Managers in an organization need to be cautious when handling affairs of an organization so as to ensure that firms operate efficiently and compete effectively for the factors of production (Ganta, 2014). The proper administration of an entity depends on the expertise of the executive team in a company. Therefore, it is important that managers in an organization understand the principles of management and apply the knowledge in their oversight roles. One of the prevailing strategies that aid in the development of efficient production activities in the society is behavioral management principles, which was developed due to the failure of the classicist to address the importance of the needs of employees in the performance of an enterprise's activities. In reality, behavioral management plans focus on employee motivation by analyzing the workers' everyday behaviors (Ganta, 2014).

Challenges Workers Face

 According to Indabawa and Uba (2014), scholars refer to behavioral management strategies as human relations movement as they believe that it is the efficient coordination of the labor that is available in a company that aids in the successful production processes. Consequently, behavioral management schemes focus on conflict resolutions in a company as one of the factors that aid in the efficient operations of a firm. Indeed, workers in enterprises in the industry face a myriad of challenges that require an amicable solution to help avert any fall out with the employer. For instance, employees experience the problems of poor remuneration, hostile work environment and emotional challenges among others. Therefore, it is prudent that administrators in a company analyze behaviors that workers show concerning unfavorable work conditions and solve the problems of the employees. Another challenge that affects the operations of an employee is the lack of motivation. Zameer et al. (2014) opine that motivation is paramount for efficient execution of an enterprise's activities, and the executive team can motivate their subordinates both intrinsically and extrinsically.

Content Theory

Kwok (2014) argues that the development and refinement of behavioral management hypotheses involved the contribution of various personalities thus contributing to the theory's efficiency in the administration of a company's affairs. The concepts in theory mentioned above are two main categories, which include the content hypotheses and the cognitive contexts. The cognitive and content theories of behavioral management have various principles that aid in the improvement of the way in which employees conduct a company's affairs thus leading to an improvement in the production processes.

One of the major personalities who contributed to the behavioral management strategies is Maslow, who developed the hierarchy of needs. Maslow's Hierarchy of needs is a concept that aims at providing information concerning the various desires employees have at particular points in their lives (Indabawa & Uba, 2014). According to the concepts that Maslow developed, the needs that people hold in their lives are in two broad categories. The first type is the safety requirements which entail the demand for security, physiological needs, and the worldly desires. In reality, there is a myriad of biological processes that take place in humans and the interference of the biological activities significantly impede the efficiency of a worker. Therefore, Maslow suggests that managers in an organization need to provide subordinates with the opportunities for satisfying their physiological needs to enable the latter operate efficiently. It is evident that the denial of the workers the opportunity to execute the biological activities critically leads to mediocre productions in a company. The workers in enterprise also need security from external aggression or job assurance.

In essence, workers who are operating when they have a settled mind are productive and have the ability to initiate proper ways of solving the challenges that a company experiences. However, if employees are uncertain of their safety or job security, they resort to other activities that can significantly reduce the productivity in a firm (Riley, 2016). Furthermore; Maslow opines that the social needs of the employees in an organization also deserve maximum consideration by the executive team. For instance, the administrative groups in a company should satisfy the social requirements of workers as a way of elevating the productivity in the business. The dissatisfaction of the social needs of the workers inhibits the creativity of the workers thus adversely affecting the efficiency and productivity of a firm. For instance, employers need to allow the employees some recreational time to help improve the mental operations of the latter.

According to Maslow Hierarchy of needs, workers in an organization also require opportunities for growth thus reinforcing the need to efficiently analyze the behaviors of the employees and identifying the activities that are prudent for the employees' personal development (Kwok, 2014). One of the strategies managers ought to focus on is the improvement of the esteem of the employees. The managerial principles by Maslow postulated that employees have innate desires for appreciation hence it is important that the executive in a company offers some forms of acknowledgments for the right deeds that the workers portray (Haque et al., 2014). For instance, employers need to award the employees through promotions or salary increment for the achievements that the latter makes concerning the organization. In reality, the improvement of the employees' self-esteem acts an extrinsic motivation to the worker thus promoting their productivity. However, failure to offer the employees opportunities to build their self-esteem discourages them thus contributing to the poor performance of the company.

Finally, Maslow argues that humankind has some desires to exploit their abilities and achieve specific goals in life. Maslow termed the willingness to reach maximal goals in one's life as self-actualization stage, and it involves the performance of individual tasks with the aim of setting some records in the society (Kwok, 2014). Therefore, managers in a company need to provide the employees with the chances to engage in some unique activities thus enable the latter to perform some unique activities that can aid in the creation of a competitive advantage in the industry.

            Apart from Maslow, McGregor also contributed to the content theory of behavioral management through the managerial assumptions hypothesis (Indabawa &Uba, 2014). According to the hypothesis by McGregor, managers in an organization have two different assumptions concerning the behaviors of personalities in a workplace. One of the perceptions that administrators hold towards the subordinates is that the latter have a great dislike for work, which McGregor referred to as to the Theory X. According to the principles of Theory X, workers are personalities who want that the managers direct them and initiate specific strategies for the execution of some roles in a company (Kuranchie-Mensah & Amponsah-Tawiah, 2016).

In reference to Theory X, workers cannot perform their duties efficiently without the supervision of the executive team forcing the latter to use strategies such as threats and punishments through the formulation of strict policies. An examination of the various workplaces in the society indicates that the principles of McGregor's Theory X apply in real life situations. For instance, a majority of employees prefer that managers coerce them to perform their roles and set strict rules. Therefore, the absence of managers implies that production activities in a firm stalls unless the managers delegate the supervisory roles to another employee within the company (Osabiya, 2015).

McGregor also develops Theory Y, which critically contradicts the provision of hypothesis X, thus providing the managers with valuable information concerning the manner in which they need to handle the needs of their subordinates. According to Theory Y, employees in a company have natural desires to perform their assigned duties without the supervision or threats of punishment from the executive team in an organization (Zameer et al., 2014). Moreover, the workers in an enterprise initiate programs that aid in the smooth operation of the companies without waiting for the instructions or commands from the seniors. Thus, it is important that managers limit the controls that they exercise over the employees thus provide the latter with their opportunities to conduct their roles without interference.

 An analysis of the various companies in the industry indicates that the application of the assumptions of Theory Y significantly aids in the operations of a firm by immensely motivating the workers leading to the initiation of basic strategies for the improvement of the production process in the enterprise. Moreover, the application of the assumptions of Theory Y aids in the development of the relationships between the administrators and the workers thus enhancing the smooth flow of work in a company (Osabiya, 2015). Consequently, it is necessary that a manager applies the principles of Theory Y for the improved productivity in business.

Cognitive Theories

The Behavioral management approaches also encompass the cognitive management hypotheses which emphasize the need for self-motivation and self-direction among the employees (Nikulina & Khomenko, 2015). One of the major cognitive management principles is the Goal Setting Theory which developed from the works of Edwin Locke. According to Locke, the setting of specific and clear goals in an activity that workers perform under particular situation is an important aspect of management because it helps in the provision of directions for the behaviors that the employees need to exhibit (Haque et al., 2014). In particular, the delivery of precise and comprehensive goals to the workers prompts them to adjust their behaviors and work towards the attainment of the set objectives. In reality, the development of concise mission in an enterprise is significant in the direction of the strategies that the employees are likely to apply to their normal operations. For example, a company that provides the employees with strategic plans for a particular period experiences high levels of output because employees undertake their roles with the aim of achieving the strategies of the employer.

            Locke also opined that the development of challenging plans for an enterprise is critical in enhancing innovation among the employees because they work the aim of solving the fundamental problems that the firm provides to them. Furthermore, it is important that the managers in an enterprise provide the employee with the opportunities to participate in the goal development thus motivating the workers (Kuranchie-Mensah & Amponsah-Tawiah, 2016). For instance, the employees will show high levels of involvement in the affairs of a company due to the feeling that the employer values their presence the company. A survey of the operations of the various industries in the market indicates that the setting of goals for the affairs of a firm is a crucial motivation factor and helps in the direction of the behaviors that the workers show towards the attainment of the general strategies of the company.

The last behavioral management hypothesis that is imminent in the current society is the Expectancy Theory, which Victor Vroom developed to help illustrate the factors that aid in the production processes. According to the principles of Expectancy Theory, a positive relationship exists between performance and effort that the employees in an organization exhibit during the operations of an enterprise (Riley, 2016). The desirable performance that people display in their quest to produce a given commodity significantly motivates the worker thus leading to the satisfaction of a particular need, which is an essential element in the success of a firm.

According to the analysis by Vroom, the individual personalities, experience, skills, knowledge and strengths are important aspects of the success of a worker. Indeed, the valence of an employee is necessary for the determining the way the worker relates with other personalities in the company (Osabiya, 2015). Furthermore, every worker has a particular set of things that they need to achieve and the manner in which the administrators should help in the attainment of the goals. Therefore, the failure by the employer to meet the needs of the worker adversely affects the latter's commitment to the execution of various tasks in the firm. The principles of Expectancy Theory are observable in the present day society whereby workers strike against the employers who fail to meet their needs thus compromising the production processes in the industry. Furthermore, managers conduct various tests on behavior during the recruitment processes to help identify the personalities who can perform their duties and meet the set standards of the company.

Conclusion

As discussed in the essay, some of the major concepts in the behavioral hypotheses are the Maslow's hierarchy of needs, which show the factors that employers should focus on intending to improve the productivity of their companies. In particular, the physiological, self-esteem, security and social needs among others are important aspects for motivating the workers. Apart from Maslow, McGregor contributed to the behavioral management hypothesis through the Theory X and Theory Y, which argues the employees in a particular workplace either have an inherent dislike for work or enjoy performing their roles unconditionally. Also, the theories of expectancy and Goal Setting hypothesis play a crucial role in the motivation of the workers in a given workplace. As evident in the essay, the failure by the managers to apply the concepts of management as mentioned above significantly impedes the progress of the firms.

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