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Annotated bibliography

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“Male minority nursing students are faced with many concerns as they strive to complete their education.” (pg 18)

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“Minority students in many nursing programs are considered to be at-risk students and face recruitment and retention barriers. The barriers include academic deficiencies, especially in rigorous science curriculum; inadequate preparation for standardized admission tests; lack of role models for minority students; poor study skills; lack of a support system; lack of financial resources to include ignorance about financial aid programs; and cultural alienation reported as perceived lack of support from White faculty and classmates.” (pg 18)

Though the number of men enrolled for a nursing course in Texas is on the rise, the enrollees face numerous barriers, such as lack of male mentors and role models, alienation resulting from lack of support from classmates and Caucasian faculty, gender stereotyping and perception of being uncaring. These barriers expose the male enrollees to stressful environments making it at the time impossible for them to continue with the course. The impact may also affect those willing to pursue the course because of the uncertainties, and they would not like to risk their future. However, male enrollees must learn how to adapt, improve and overcome all challenges they face.

Steinmetz, J., Bosak, J., Sczesny, S., & Eagly, A. H. (2014). Social role effects on gender stereotyping in Germany and Japan. Asian Journal of Social Psychology, 17(1), 52-60.

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 “Because gender stereotypes are formed through the observation of women and men in different social roles, the occupancy of the same social roles by women and men might be able to prevent gender stereotyping.” (pg 1)

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“Men and women are differently distributed into social roles because humans evolved physical differences by which men are stronger, larger, and faster than women and women gestate and nurse children. Because of the physical differences, certain activities are more efficiently accomplished by one sex or the other, depending on each society’s circumstances and culture.” (Pg 1)

The social origins of stereotypes indicate that people usually observe the actions of girls and boys from childhood. Gender-based stereotypes are fueled by the daily observations because there is a strong belief among people that the behavior of an individual is characterized by the sex type. Sexes take part in various behaviors making them occupy different roles socially. For instance, the number of women in domestic roles as well as in occupations such as nurses and teachers is higher than that of men while the number of men in occupations such as leaders, soldier or firefighters is high.

Aranda, M., Castillo-Mayén, M. D. R., & Montes-Berges, B. (2015). Has changed the traditional social perception on nurses? Attribution of stereotypes and gender roles. AcciónPsicológica, 12(1), 103-112.


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“The relationship between nursing and women is so strong that there are even professionals in this sector who identify medicine with male stereotypes and nursing with female ones” ( pg 104)

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“However, the evolution of gender stereotypes in nursing reflects a specific tendency: female nurses are perceived as having both feminine and masculine traits (although the first type slightly outweighs the second), whereas male nurses are also described in ways that are traditionally related to communality.” (Pg 110)

Despite many people regarding nursing as a female profession, the recent years has seen an influx in the number of men undertaking the course. Though there is a significant change concerning nursing, patriarchy still has a significant effect on the way patients, general population, and nursing students perceive the career.  Stereotyping has a significant impact on the nursing career.

There is a strong relationship between women and nursing. The strong relationship makes many professionals in the health sector to identify nursing with female stereotypes and medicine with males.  Associating nursing to females show less positive consideration of the career in comparison to medicine which is regarded as a masculinized occupation.  

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