7.04- Semester Assessment- Modern U.S. History (Final K12)

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How did Franklin Roosevelt’s fireside chats affect the American people during the Depression and the beginning of World War II?

They raised their confidence that things would improve.

What did Franklin Roosevelt and the Congress do that indicated the government would move quickly to solve the problems of the Depression?

They passed numerous pieces of legislation in the first hundred days of his administration.

Why did Roosevelt propose laws to establish new agencies and programs at the beginning of his first term?

He believed the government had a moral obligation to help families survive.

Which were the main goals of Roosevelt’s New Deal legislation?

relief, recovery, and reform

How did the Civilian Conservation Corps and the Works Progress Administration benefit the nation?

Both programs provided jobs.

Which is a common historical view of the New Deal?

The New Deal did not end the Great Depression, but it eased some of the problems.

Which New Deal program still helps retirees, dependent mothers and children, and disabled people?

Social Security

How did the leadership of many European governments change during the 1930s?

Fascist dictators assumed power.

How did some European leaders contribute to the start of World War II?

They invaded other countries without provocation in order to add territory.

Which action indicated that the United States would resume a policy of isolationism during the 1930s?

Congress passed five neutrality laws in order to stay out of any conflicts.

Which program did Franklin Roosevelt establish to aid Britain’s war effort?

Lend-Lease

Which finally brought the United States fully into World War II?

Japan’s bombing of Pearl Harbor

Which was the main point of Franklin Roosevelt’s Four Freedoms speech?

to prepare Americans for the nation’s possible entry into World War II

How did many women assist the U.S. war effort in World War II?

by working in civilian jobs that had typically been held by men

Which U.S. actions violated the constitutional rights of some citizens during World War II?

interning and detaining Japanese Americans in camps

Who commanded American forces in the Pacific theater of war?

Douglas MacArthur

Which best describes how African Americans participated in the war effort during World War II?

They worked in defense factories and fought in segregated units in the armed forces.

Which event demonstrated the effectiveness of air power at sea and crushed Japan’s hopes for a swift victory over the United States?

Battle of Midway

Which best describes the results of the Holocaust?

About 11 million people, including about 6 million Jews, were systematically murdered by the Nazis.

Which was Harry Truman’s rationale for using the atomic bomb on Japan?

He wanted to end the war as quickly as possible.

Which action signaled the beginning of the Cold War?

Stalin’s refusal to remove Soviet troops from Eastern Europe after World War II

Which was the goal of the U.S. policy of containment in the years following World War II?

keeping the Soviet Union from expanding communism outside its borders

All of the following are examples of how the U.S. policy of containment was carried out in the decades following World War II except __________.

McCarthyism

Which was the original purpose of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)?

to provide a unified defense against Soviet aggression

Which were results of the Marshall Plan?

Western Europe was rebuilt and America prospered.

Which name was given to the U.S. policy of giving military aid to countries to help them stop the spread of communism?

Truman Doctrine

What June 1950 action caused the United Nations to respond with military action?

North Korea invaded South Korea.

Which was the result of the Korean War?

A cease-fire agreement created a demilitarized zone along the 38th parallel.

Which term describes the widespread fear of communism in the 1950s?

Red Scare

How did McCarthyism and the fear of communism affect American society?

Church attendance increased and many Americans were willing to give up some civil liberties.

Which president cautioned the United States about the importance of monitoring the power of the military-industrial complex?

Dwight Eisenhower

Why did the CIA support covert activity to restore the shah to power in Iran?

to protect oil interests and prevent the spread of communism

Which was one result of increased consumer spending after World War II?

The economy grew quickly.

What was the baby boom?

the significant population growth following World War II

Legislation passed in the 1950’s to fund an interstate highway system was primarily in response to what?

a growing car culture

What happened when developers built affordable, mass-produced houses?

The suburbs grew as young families moved away from cities.

Which was one effect that television had on American society in the 1950s?

It promoted a common culture.

Which was one unique element of the election of 1960?

It was the first election to use televised debates.

Which was one effect of McCarthyism in the 1950s?

People felt a pressure to conform to avoid suspicion.

How did the American workforce change during the 1950s?

For the first time, white-collar workers outnumbered blue-collar workers.

John F. Kennedy said, "Ask not what your country can do for you; ask what you can do for your country." How did those words affect young voters?

They were inspired to participate in working for their country.

Which was one cause of the civil rights movement following World War II?

Blacks returned from military service to find Jim Crow laws still in place.

What did not play a significant role in the civil rights movement?

freedom rides throughout the Northeast

Which was the key focus of the Civil Rights Act of 1964?

eliminating segregation in most public places

Which was a major achievement of Lyndon Johnson’s War on Poverty?

establishing Medicare and Medicaid

Which best summarizes the Supreme Court decision in Brown v. Board of Education?

Separate but equal schools were inherently unequal and unconstitutional.

According to his "Letter from Birmingham Jail," which did Martin Luther King, Jr., believe?

One has a moral responsibility to disobey unjust laws.

Which describes a result of the Voting Rights Act?

The number of registered black voters in the South significantly increased.

Which did state legislatures in the South do as a result of the Brown v. Board of Education ruling?

They enacted laws and policies to prevent the desegregation of public schools in their states.

How did the civil rights movement begin to change in the mid-1960s?

Many black leaders began to take a more militant approach to civil rights.

Which event gave President Johnson the support he needed to push for passage of the Voting Rights Act?

Bloody Sunday in Selma

Which sparked the Cuban Missile Crisis?

the discovery of Soviet missiles in communist Cuba

Which best describes the outcome of the Cuban Missile Crisis?

The Soviet Union removed its missiles from Cuba and the United States agreed to remove its missiles from Turkey.

Which theory did four U.S. presidents use to justify U.S. participation in the Vietnam War?

domino theory

Which view of the Vietnam War led to objections about U.S. participation there?

The United States was interfering in another nation’s civil war.

Why was waging war in Vietnam difficult for U.S. soldiers?

The Vietnamese terrain and climate were harsh and difficult.

Why was waging war in Vietnam difficult for U.S. soldiers?

The Vietnamese terrain and climate were harsh and difficult.

Who authorized a bombing campaign against Cambodia, resulting in increased opposition to the war in Vietnam?

Richard Nixon

Which was a result of the Vietnam War?

There was a growing distrust of government by the American people.

What was the eventual outcome of the Vietnam War?

The fall of Saigon led to a unified, communist Vietnam.

Which did the 1960s counterculture embrace?

opposition to the establishment and traditional values

Which best describes Students for a Democratic Society?

a student organization that opposed the war in Vietnam

Which inspired a second wave of the women’s movement?

Betty Friedan’s The Feminine Mystique

Which was one effect of the women’s movement on society?

an increase in the number of women enrolling in professional schools

Which best describes the intent of the Equal Rights Amendment?

Equal rights could not be denied on the basis of sex.

How did the African American civil rights movement influence other groups, including gays and lesbians, American Indians, and Hispanics?

Their movement inspired other groups to organize and advocate for civil rights.

Who was Cesar Chavez?

the founder of the National Farm Workers Association

Which was one environmental achievement of the Nixon administration?

establishing the Environmental Protection Agency

Which result did President Nixon hope to achieve by improving relations with China?

improved relations with the Soviet Union

Which was one effect of the Watergate scandal on the nation?

People became more skeptical about politics and less trusting of government.

Which contributed to the economic problems of the 1970s?

an Arab oil embargo

Which issues united Reagan supporters during the election of 1980?

a forceful foreign policy and a strong military

Which was not an issue during the 1980 presidential election?

war in Iraq

Which was one reason some people supported supply-side economics and others opposed it?

It called for large tax cuts for the wealthy.

Which group helped elect Ronald Reagan?

the New Right

Which is a key piece of supply-side economics?

measures that promote growth in production

Why were many conservatives in favor of government deregulation?

They thought the excessive number of regulations hurt businesses.

In which area did government deregulation benefit both businesses and consumers?

airlines

Who is Sandra Day O’Connor?

the first woman Supreme Court justice

Who joined Ronald Reagan in taking a firm hand against communism in the Eastern Bloc?

Britain’s Margaret Thatcher

In which country did Lech Walesa and Pope John Paul II play a role in ending communism?

Poland

In which area is Ronald Reagan’s legacy usually considered strongest?

confronting the Cold War

How did glasnost and perestroika contribute to the fall of the Soviet Union?

They brought the outside world and different economic and political options to the people.

How did President George H.W. Bush respond when other nations failed to support long-term U.S. involvement in the Persian Gulf War in 1991?

He withdrew U.S. troops.

Which contribution did Bill Gates, Paul Allen, Steve Wozniak, and Steve Jobs make to computer usage?

operating systems and software that made personal computers possible

Which was one impact of reducing the size and cost of computers?

They became widely accessible to the public.

Use the map and your knowledge to answer the question that follows.

(2) Iraq

How did the development of the World Wide Web change communication?

It made the Internet widely accessible.

Which business practice of the 1990s changed the way U.S. companies produced goods and provided services?

outsourcing

Which issue largely related to Mexico became a major controversy in the 1990s?

illegal immigration

What agreement reduced trade barriers between the United States, Canada, and Mexico, but raised issues about protecting American jobs?

North American Free Trade Agreement

Which goal did the Clinton administration fail to achieve?

providing universal health care to all Americans

Which part of the world created the most significant foreign policy challenge for the Clinton administration?

Eastern Europe

Which December 2000 U.S. Supreme Court ruling resulted in a widely disputed presidential election?

to stop a vote recount in Florida

What effect did the 2000 presidential election have on the early months of the George W. Bush presidency?

His administration had a shaky start while controversy continued.

Use the graph and your knowledge to answer the question that follows.

Veterans Affairs

According to constitutional scholars, which principle was threatened by George W. Bush’s interpretation of executive privilege?

separation of powers

Who was responsible for the 2001 terrorist attacks aimed at driving Americans out of all Islamic nations?

al-Qaeda and Osama bin Laden

Which legislation was intended to improve U.S. security after the September 11 attacks, but also raised concerns about American civil liberties?

the Patriot Act

Which accusation, given by President Bush as a reason for invading Iraq, later proved to be false?

Saddam Hussein had weapons of mass destruction.

Which was one reason people opposed the war in Iraq?

The United States had started a war without provocation from another country.

Which was significant about the outcome of the 2008 presidential election?

The United States elected its first African American president.

What happened at Abu Ghraib and Guantánamo that raised concerns around the world about U.S. actions?

Enhanced interrogation techniques were used in violation of the Geneva Conventions.

Which is an important issue the United States faces in the twenty-first century?

all of the above

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